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Cristalizarea picturii japoneze are loc  in Perioada Azuchi-Momoyama (1573-1603). Aceasta perioada este numita in istoria Japoniei  – Sengoku , adica perioada razboaielor intre marii feudali ai Japoniei, care se va termina cu instaurarea Shogunatului Tokugawa, transferarea capitalei la Edo (azi Tokyo) si unificarea de facto a Japoniei. Ashikaga Takauji a învins Shogunii Kamakura în 1333, în numele împăratului, însă apoi s-a autoproclamat Shogun, în 1338, si a stabilit centrul guvernării în Muromachi, Kyoto. Shogunii Ashikaga au devenit interesati de artă. În 1573, un mic conducător, numit Oda Nobunaga (1534-1582), l-a detronat pe Shogunul Ashikaga. Sfarsitul acestei perioade a fost descris cu mult talent in romanul Shogun de James Clavell.

Eng. The Azuchi-Momoyama period came at the end of the Warring States Period in Japan, when the political unification that preceded the establishment of the Tokugawa shogunate took place. The Sengoku period or Warring States in Japanese history was a time of social upheaval, political intrigue, and nearly constant military conflict that lasted roughly from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. After nearly a century and a half of political instability and warfare, Japan was on the verge of unification by Oda Nobunaga, who had emerged from obscurity in the province of Owari (present-day Aichi Prefecture) to dominate central Japan, when in 1582 Nobunaga himself fell victim to the treachery of one of his own generals, Akechi Mitsuhide.

In aceasta perioada apare prima scoala de pictura din istoria artistica japoneza – cunoscuta sub numele Scoala Kano. Aceasta scoala a inclus pe “cei trei Kano” – Kano Eitoku (1543–1590), Kano Sanraku (1559–1663) si Kano Tanyu (1602–1674). Scoala Kano a fost  una dintre cele mai renumite scoli de pictura japoneză.

Stilul de pictură Kano a fost stilul dominant  până la perioada Meiji, deci cateva secole bune. Şcoala era renumita pentru picturile monocrome de cerneală-pe-mătase, in special pentru a reproduce peisaje. Pictorii Kano au compus imagini plate, dar  echilibrate, cu descrieri detaliate si  impecabil de realiste cu  animale, plante si persoane în prim-plan. Fundalul picturilor este de multe ori gol sau cu elemente simple de nori, ceata, etc.

Eng. The Kano school is one of the most famous schools of Japanese painting. The Kano school of painting was the dominant style of painting until the Meiji period. The school is equally renowned, however, for its monochrome ink-on-silk landscapes. Kanō ink painters composed very flat pictures, but they balanced impeccably detailed realistic depictions of animals and other subjects in the foreground with abstract, often entirely blank, clouds and other background elements.

Bibliografie, note si citate:

Koren, Leonard. Wabi Sabi for artists, designers, poets and philosophers. Berkley, CA: Stone Bridge Press. 1994
Mason, Penelope. History of Japanese Art . Prentice Hall 2005.
Sadao, Tsuneko. Discovering the Arts of Japan: A Historical Overview. Kodansha International. 2003
Theophyle. O Istorie a Japoniei  (3-8)
Theophyle. O Istorie a Japoniei – Religia Shinto
Theophyle. Limba Japoneza (1-2)
Theophyle. Limba Japoneza – Manuscrisul Kojiki
Theophyle. Limba Japoneza – Caligrafia Shodō

Gowing, L (ed.) A Biographical Dictionary of Artists, Rev. edn, Andromeda Oxford Limited, Oxfordshire. (1995)
wikicommon (en.)

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