O ultima privire asupra picturii japoneze clasice in perioada Edo ne duce la una dintre cele mai interesante experiente sincretice dintre traditionalismul rigid al scolilor Kano si Tosa cu intelectualismul reprezentat de scoala de pictura din sudul Chinei (nanzhonghua). Ma refer la Scoala Shijo, de fapt construita prin unirea cu Scoala Maruyama, fondata de Maruyama Ōkyo (1733 – 1795) impreuna cu fostul sau ucenic, Matsumura Goshun, si de multe ori mentionata in tratatele de istorie ca scoala Maruyama-Shijo.
Majoritatea artistilor si artizanilor plastici se concentrau in aceasta perioada in Kyoto, care atunci ca si acum este considerata capitala artistica si intelectuala a Japoniei. In perioada Edo, Kyoto a facut parte impreuna cu Osaka si Edo din cele trei centre ale economiei si culturii japoneze. Shijo inseamna in japoneza “strada a IV-a”, adica de fapt strada in care se concentrau si aveau atelierele artistii care pot fi atribuiti acestei scoli.
Eng. The Shijō school also known as the Maruyama-Shijō school, was an offshoot school of the Maruyama school of Japanese painting founded by Maruyama Ōkyo, and his former student Matsumura Goshun in the late 18th century. This school was one of several that made up the larger Kyoto school. The school is named after the street in Kyoto where many major artists were based; Shijo literally translates to „fourth avenue”.
Shijō style can best be described as a synthesis of two rival styles of the time. Maruyama Ōkyo was an experienced and expert painter of sumi-e ink paintings, and accomplished a great degree of realism in his creations, emphasizing direct observation of depicted subjects which was a direct contravention of the officially sponsored schools of the time, Kanō and Tosa, which emphasized decorativeness with highly formalized and stylized figures taught to its students via copying paintings of past masters.
Scoala Shijo poate fi considerata (mai mult metaforic) ca reprezentanta a realismului European, executat cu viziunea si traditiile sino-nipone. Desi fondatori au fost artizani de exceptie, cei mai cunoscuti pictori ai acestei scoli au fost Shibata Zeshin (1807 – 1891), mare maestru al executiilor lacuite si Mori Sosen (1747 – 1821), probabil indragostit de desenul si pictura maimutelor (multe zeci de tablouri cu acest subiect.)
Eng. The school’s style focuses on a Western-influenced objective realism, but achieved with traditional Japanese painting techniques. It concentrates less on the exact depiction of its subject, but rather on expressing the ‘inner spirit’ and usually has an element of playfulness and humor. The most well-known Shijō artists in the West is Mori Sosen, who is known for his great number of paintings of monkeys. Shibata Zeshin is also closely associated with the Shijō school, though he worked in many other styles and mediums, most notably lacquer objects and lacquer painting.
Bibliografie, note si citate:
Vezi bibliografia postarilor precedente, plus:
Japanese Paintings and Prints of the Shijo School. New York: The Brooklyn Museum, 1981.
Zeshin and Related Artists. London: Milne Henderson, 1976.