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Perioada Edo (1603-1868) este probabil cea mai prolifica perioada artistica din istoria artei japoneze clasice. Se poate observa o continuare a perioadei precedente, Azuchi-Momoyama, cu influente puternice ale noilor contacte. In aceasta perioada ajung si primii europeni in Japonia si interactia cu acestia si in special cu religia crestina genereaza un alt gen de arta, la fel de japoneza in sine, care poarta o amprenta europeana produsa de religia crestina.

Cam prin 1550 existau in Japonia 300 de mii de crestini, dupa martiratul de la Nagasaki din 1595, in care au fost crucificati 26 de crestini (Nihon Nijūroku Seijin), toti membri de vaza ai comunitatii crestine. Astfel, crestinismul va intra in ilegalitate pentru aproape un secol si jumatate.

Contactul nipono-european are loc in perioada numita Nanban (Nanban boeki), adica perioada negotului cu “barbarii” (europeni). Perioada inceputa in 1543 si terminata prin expulzarea fortata a tuturor europenilor in 1614, prin promulgarea edictului de interzicere si expulzare, Sakoku, edict care a fost anulat numai in 1853.

Eng. Many art historians show the Edo period as a continuation of the Azuchi-Momoyama period. Certainly, during the early Edo period, many of the previous trends in painting continued to be popular; however, a number of new trends also emerged. Edo period was Namban art, both in the depiction of exotic foreigners and in the use of the exotic foreigner style in painting. Christian missionaries arrived with Francis Xavier and the Jesuits in the 1540’s and briefly flourished, with over 300,000 converts, including many daimyo in Kyoshu. Suddenly in 1587 Christianity was repressed as a threat to national unity and ceased to exist publicly. Many Catholics went underground, becoming hidden Christians (kakure kirishitan), while others lost their lives. Only after the Meiji Restoration was Christianity re-established in Japan.

The Nanban trade ( Nanban boeki) in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans (Jesuit Portuguese) to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the „Sakoku” Seclusion Edicts.

Scoala de pictura care caracterizeaza cel mai bine perioada Edo, este Scoala numita Rimpa.  Scoala Rimpa este formata la sfarsitul secolului al XVI-lea si inceputul secolului al XVII-lea in Kyoto si formata din 4 mari pictori ai acestei perioade – Hon’ami Koetsu (1558-1637) si Tawaraya Sotatsu (decedat, c.1643) si de doi frati Ogata Korin (1658-1716) si Ogata Kenzan (1663-1743). Numita initial dupa numele fondatorului Koetsu, si redenumita, fiind consacrata sub numele de Rimpa pe timpul restauratiei Menji.

Tematica este yamato-e, asa cum am descris-o in postarea precedenta, cu elemente sub influenta perioadei Ming din arta chineza. Rimpa a pictat pe tot ce se putea picta – de la panouri monumentale si pana la chimonouri pentru marea nobilime. Bineinteles nu au lipsit extraordinarele cutii lacuite sau emailate si nici superba ceramica a serviciilor de ceai pentru atat de importantele ceremonii ale ceaiului japonez.

Eng. Rimpa (or Rinpa?), is one of the major historical schools of Japanese painting. It was created in 16-17th century Kyoto by Hon’ami Kōetsu (1558-1637) and Tawaraya Sōtatsu (d. c.1643). Roughly fifty years later, the style was consolidated by brothers Ogata Kōrin (1658-1716) and Ogata Kenzan (1663-1743). Hon’ami Kōetsu founded an artistic community of craftsmen supported by wealthy merchant patrons of the Nichiren Buddhist sect at Takagamine in northeastern Kyoto in 1615. Both the affluent merchant town elite and the old Kyoto aristocratic families favored arts which followed classical traditions, and Kōetsu obliged by producing numerous works of ceramics, calligraphy and lacquerware. Rimpa artists worked in various formats, notably screens, fans and hanging scrolls, woodblock printed books, lacquerware, ceramics, and kimono textiles. Many Rimpa paintings were used on the sliding doors and walls (fusuma) of noble homes.

Bibliografie, note si citate:

Vezi bibliografia postarilor precedente, plus:
Mizuo, Hiroshi. Edo Painting: Sotatsu and Korin (Heibonsha Survey of Japanese Art). Art Media Resources, 1972.
Stern, Harold P. Rimpa Masterworks of the Japanese Decorative School. The Japan Society , 1971.